Avogadro Meaning In Urdu

  

Avogadro’s number, number of units in one mole of any substance (defined as its molecular weight in grams), equal to 6.02214076 × 10 23. The units may be electrons, atoms, ions, or molecules, depending on the nature of the substance and the character of the reaction (if any).See alsoAvogadro’s law. 11th Class Chemistry Video Lectures in Urdu Chemistry There are total eleven chapters in 1st year chemistry book and the aspirants are required to study all these chapters thoroughly as the complete exam of chemistry including MCQs, short and long question based on the topics of these chapters. Noun, plural avocados. Also called alligator pear. A large, usually pear-shaped fruit having green to blackish skin, a single large seed, and soft, light-green pulp, borne by the tropical American tree Persea americana and its variety P. Adrymifolia, often eaten raw, especially in salads. The tree itself. What is avogadro number and how was it calculated over the centuries by various scientists, all its details has been given. Starting right from Gay-luscs i. Urdu Words: 1: AVOCADO R Adjective Report Error! ایوو کیڈو ۔ مگر نا شپاتی ۔ ناشپاتی کی شکل کا شیرہ دار پھل نرم بیج رکھتا ہے ۔ 2: AVOCADO R Noun Report Error! مَگَر ناشپاتی ۔ 3: AVOCADO.


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Related to hypothesis: Null hypothesis, Hypothesis testing, research hypothesis

hy·poth·e·sis

(hī-pŏth′ĭ-sĭs)n.pl.hy·poth·e·ses(-sēz′)
1. A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.
2. Something taken to be true for the purpose of argument or investigation; an assumption.
[Latin, subject for a speech, from Greek hupothesis, proposal, supposition, from hupotithenai, hupothe-, to suppose : hupo-, hypo- + tithenai, to place; see dhē- in Indo-European roots.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

hypothesis

(haɪˈpɒθɪsɪs) n, pl-ses (-ˌsiːz)
1. a suggested explanation for a group of facts or phenomena, either accepted as a basis for further verification (working hypothesis) or accepted as likely to be true. Compare theory5
2. an assumption used in an argument without its being endorsed; a supposition
[C16: from Greek, from hupotithenai to propose, suppose, literally: put under; see hypo-, thesis]
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

hy•poth•e•sis

(haɪˈpɒθ ə sɪs, hɪ-)
Urdun., pl. -ses (-ˌsiz)
1. a provisional theory set forth to explain some class of phenomena, either accepted as a guide to future investigation (working hypothesis) or assumed for the sake of argument and testing.
2. a proposition assumed as a premise in an argument.
3. the antecedent of a conditional proposition.
[1590–1600; < Greek hypóthesis basis, supposition = hypo(ti)thé(nai) to assume, suppose (hypo- hypo- + tithénai to put, place) + -sis -sis]
syn: See theory.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.

hy·poth·e·sis

(hī-pŏth′ĭ-sĭs)Pluralhypotheses(hī-pŏth′ĭ-sēz′)
A statement that explains a set of facts and can be tested to determine if it is false or inaccurate.
Usage The words hypothesis, law, and theory refer to different kinds of statements that scientists make about natural phenomena. A hypothesis is a statement that attempts to explain a set of facts. It forms the basis for an experiment that is designed to test whether it is true. Suppose your friend Smedley's room is a mess; your hypothesis might be that Smedley makes the room messy. You could test this hypothesis with an experiment: tidy up the room and see if it becomes messy again after Smedley returns. A scientific law is a statement that is believed to be true all the time for a set of conditions. If Smedley's room is always a mess when he is in it, you might propose a 'Smedley's Mess Law' stating that whenever Smedley is in his room, he will always make it messy. Laws have the power to predict what will happen under the conditions they apply to. Thus, 'Smedley's Mess Law' predicts that Smedley's room will be messy anytime Smedley is in it. A theory is a set of principles or statements devised to explain a whole group of observations or phenomena. A theory thus tries to account for a wider variety of events than a law does. Broad acceptance of a theory comes when it has been repeatedly tested experimentally on new data and makes accurate predictions about them. If people noticed that it became messy everywhere Smedley went, it might lead to the theory that Smedley brings messiness wherever he goes. This theory could be tested by bringing Smedley somewhere he's never been.
The American Heritage® Student Science Dictionary, Second Edition. Copyright © 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

hypothesis

1. a principle or proposition that is assumed for the sake of argument or that is taken for granted to proceed to the proof of the point in question.
2. a system or theory created to account for something that is not understood. — hypothesist, hypothetist,n.hypothetic, hypothetical,adj.
See also: Philosophy
1. a principle or proposition that is assumed for the sake of argument or that is taken for granted to proceed to the proof of the point in question.
2. a system or theory created to account for something that is not understood. — hypothesist, hypothetist, n. — hypothetic, hypothetical, adj.
See also: Argumentation
-Ologies & -Isms. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

hypothesis

Dictionary of Unfamiliar Words by Diagram Group Copyright © 2008 by Diagram Visual Information Limited
Noun1.hypothesis - a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
proposal - something proposed (such as a plan or assumption)
2.hypothesis - a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena; 'a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory'; 'he proposed a fresh theory of alkalis that later was accepted in chemical practices'
concept, conception, construct - an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances
hypothetical - a hypothetical possibility, circumstance, statement, proposal, situation, etc.; 'consider the following, just as a hypothetical'
gemmule - the physically discrete element that Darwin proposed as responsible for heredity
framework, model, theoretical account - a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process; 'the computer program was based on a model of the circulatory and respiratory systems'
conjecture, speculation - a hypothesis that has been formed by speculating or conjecturing (usually with little hard evidence); 'speculations about the outcome of the election'; 'he dismissed it as mere conjecture'
supposal, supposition, assumption - a hypothesis that is taken for granted; 'any society is built upon certain assumptions'
theory - a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena; 'theories can incorporate facts and laws and tested hypotheses'; 'true in fact and theory'
historicism - a theory that social and cultural events are determined by history
3.hypothesis - a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence
guess, speculation, supposition, surmisal, surmise, conjecture
opinion, view - a message expressing a belief about something; the expression of a belief that is held with confidence but not substantiated by positive knowledge or proof; 'his opinions appeared frequently on the editorial page'
divination - successful conjecture by unusual insight or good luck
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.

hypothesis

nountheory, premise, proposition, assumption, thesis, postulate, supposition, premissDifferent hypotheses have been put forward.
Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002

hypothesis

noun
A belief used as the basis for action:
The American Heritage® Roget's Thesaurus. Copyright © 2013, 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
hypotézadomněnka
tilgáta
仮定仮設仮説
hipotēze

hypothesis

[haɪˈpɒθɪsɪs]N (hypotheses (pl)) [haɪˈpɒθɪsiːz]hipótesisf inv
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005

hypothesis

[haɪˈpɒθɪsɪs] [hypothesesMeaning] [haɪˈpɒθɪsiːz] (pl) nhypothèsef
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

hypothesis

n pl <hypotheses> → Hypothesef, → Annahmef; working hypothesisArbeitshypothesef
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007

hypothesis

[haɪˈpɒθɪsɪs]n (hypotheses (pl)) [haɪˈpɒθɪsiːz]ipotesif inv
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995

hypothesis

(haiˈpoθəsis) plural hyˈpotheses (-siːz) noun
an unproved theory or point of view put forward, eg for the sake of argument. hipotese إفْتِراض، فَرَضِيَّه предположение hipótese hypotéza die Hypothese hypotese υπόθεσηhipótesis hüpotees فرضيه hypoteesi hypothèseהנחה, השערה प्राक्कल्पना hipoteza feltevés, hipotézis hipotesis tilgáta ipotesi 仮説 가설 hipotezė hipotēze hipotesis hypothese, vooronderstellingantakelse, hypotesehipoteza فرضیه hipótese ipoteză гипотеза hypotéza domneva hipoteza hypotes, antagande สมมุติฐาน hipotez, varsayım 假設 гіпотеза, припущення افتراض ، قیاس giả thuyết 假设
hypothetical (haipəˈθetikəl) adjectiveAvogadro
imaginary; supposed. hipoteties إفْتِراضي предполагаем hipotético hypotetický; předpokládaný hypothetisch hypotetisk υποθετικόςhipotético hüpoteetiline فرضی hypoteettinen hypothétiqueהיפותטי, תיאורטי प्राव-काल्पनिक hipotetski feltételes hipotetis reistur á tilgátu/ímyndaðri forsendu ipotetico 仮定の 가설의 hipotetinis hipotētisks merupakan andaian hypothetisch, voorondersteld tenkt, hypotetiskhipotetyczny فرضی hipotético ipotetic гипотетический hypotetický domneven hipotetički hypotetisk ซึ่งสมมุติขึ้น hipotetik, varsayıma dayalı 假設的 гіпотетичний, можливий قیاسی ، مفروضہ có tính chất giả thuyết 假设的
hypothetically

Avogadro Meaning In Urdu Meaning

(haipəˈθetikəli)

Avogadro Meaning In Urdu Dictionary

adverb
hipoteties بصورة إفْتِراضِيَّه предполагаемо hipoteticamente hypoteticky hypothetisch hypotetiskt υποθετικάhipotéticamente hüpoteetiliselt بطور فرضی hypoteettisesti hypothétiquement בְּאוֹפֶן תֵּיאוֹרֵטִי प्राव-काल्पनिक hipotetsko feltételezetten secara hipotetis út frá tilgátu/gefinni forsendu ipoteticamente 仮定的に 가설에 근거하여 hipotetiškai hipotētiski dengan andaian hypothetisch, voorondersteld ut fra et tenkt tilfelle, hypotetisk hipotetycznie په فرضی ډول hipoteticamente (în mod) ipotetic гипотетически hypoteticky domnevno hipotetički hypotetisk โดยสมมุติ hipotetik olarak 假設上 гіпотетично قیاسی طور پر theo giả thuyết 假设地
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.

hy·poth·e·sis

n. hipótesis, suposición asumida en el desarrollo de una teoría.

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From Academic Kids

Avogadro's number, also called Avogadro's constant (NA) is a large constant used in chemistry and physics.

Contents
2 History
4 Physical significance of Avogadro's number
6 Numerical value
8 Avogadro's number in life
10 Further reading

Definition

Avogadro's number is formally defined as the number of carbon-12 atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12. It is approximately 6.022 × 1023 particles/mole. Historically, carbon-12 was chosen as the reference substance because its atomic mass could be measured particularly accurately.

A mole is defined as Avogadro's number of particles of any kind of substance (atoms, ions, molecules, or formula units).

History

Avogadro's number is named after the early 19th century Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro.It appears that Jean Baptiste Perrin was the first to name it.Perrin called it 'Avogadro's constant' and it is still sometimes known by that name. The numerical value was first calculated by Johann Josef Loschmidt in 1865 using the kinetic gas theory. In German-speaking countries, the number may still be referred to as Loschmidt's number. Unfortunately, in a few cases (mainly in the older literature) Loschmidt's number refers to the number of atoms (or molecules) in a cubic centimeter, a usage now disparaged, viz: [1] (http://gemini.tntech.edu/~tfurtsch/scihist/loschmid.html)

Application

Avogadro's number can be applied to any substance. It corresponds to the number of atoms or molecules needed to make up a mass equal to the substance's atomic or molecular mass, in grams. For example, the atomic mass of iron is 55.847 amu, so Avogadro's number of iron atoms (i.e. one mole of iron atoms) have a mass of 55.847 g. Conversely, 55.847 g of iron contains Avogadro's number of iron atoms. Thus Avogadro's number corresponds to the conversion factor between grams (g) and atomic mass units:

<math>1 mbox{g}=N_{rm A} mbox{amu}.<math>

Physical significance of Avogadro's number

The value of Avogadro's number depends on the definition of the mole, which depends on the definition of the kilogram. Both definitions, especially that of the kilogram, are arbitrary: the kilogram system is currently based on the mass of a particular 'standard' bar of metal in France. Clearly, this means that the value of Avogadro's number is less fundamental than other physical constants in the sense that there is no physical reason for its particular value. However, Avogadro's number is still a fundamental constant: all constants depend on the units used and on the definition of the units, and therefore, such a dependence does not exclude that a constant can be called fundamental.

Avogadro Meaning In Urdu

Avogadro's number can be regarded as a conversion factor between the microscopic mass system (atomic mass units or Daltons) and the kilogram system. The microscopic mass system is based on the mass of carbon-12, while the kilogram system is currently based on the mass of a particular 'standard' bar of metal in France. So naturally there's no simple conversion factor between the two. However, if a method were developed to count atoms, it would be possible to redefine the kilogram in a way that did not depend on an arbitrary bar of metal. The number of atoms picked would presumably be equal or close to the latest accepted value of Avogadro's number. In that case, the kilogram would be redefined as the mass of 1/0.012=83.333 times Avogadro's number of Carbon atoms.

Additional physical relations

Because of its role as a scaling factor, Avogadro's number provides the link between a number of useful physical constants when we move between an atomic mass scale and a kilogram (SI) scale.For example, it provides the relationship between:

  • the universal gas constant R and the Boltzmann constant k: R = kB NA
  • the Faraday constant F and the elementary charge e: F = e NA

In the 19th century physicists measured the mass of one atom of hydrogen to be about 1/(6.023x1023) grams. The gram was originally defined to be the mass of a cubic centimeter of pure water at standard temperature and pressure [2] (http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/sci/A0832931.html). As experiments became more accurate, it was found that water was contaminated with variable amounts of heavy water, which made it undesirable to maintain a standard with hydrogen having one a.m.u. (atomic mass unit). Carbon was found to have a more constant isotopic composition, and it was also possible to separate pure carbon-12. Therefore, the atomic mass unit was changed to 1/12 the mass of an atom of carbon-12 . Hence 12 grams of carbon-12 has about 6.02214x1023 atoms. The recent history and more details can be found in the document, Atomic Weight: The Name, Its History, Definition and Units (http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/1992/pdf/6410x1535.pdf).

Numerical value

At present it is not technologically feasible to count the exact number of atoms in .012 kg of carbon-12, so the precise value of Avogadro's number is unknown. The 2002 CODATA recommended value for Avogadro's number is

<math>6.0221415(10)times 10^{23}hbox{ mol}^{-1},<math>

where the number in parentheses represents the one standard deviation uncertainty in the last digits of the value.

Avogadro

A number of methods can be used to measure Avogadro's number. One modern method is to calculate Avogadro's number from the density of a crystal, the relative atomic mass, and the unit cell length determined from x-ray crystallography. Very accurate values of these quantities for silicon have been measured at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and used to obtain the value of Avogadro's number.

Connection to masses of protons and neutrons

A carbon-12 atom consists of 6 protons and 6 neutrons (which have approximately the same mass) and 6 electrons (whose mass is negligible in comparison). One could therefore think that NA is the number of protons or neutrons that have a mass of 1 gram. While this is approximately correct, the mass of a free proton is 1.00727 amu, so a mole of protons would actually have a mass of 1.00727 g. Similarly, a mole of neutrons has a mass of 1.00866 g. Clearly, 6 moles of protons combined with six moles of neutrons would have a mass greater than 12 g. So, you might ask how one mole of carbon-12 atoms, which should consist of 6 moles each of protons, neutrons, and electrons could possibly have a mass of only 12 g? What happened to the excess mass? The answer is related to the equivalence of matter and energy discovered by Albert Einstein as part of the theory of special relativity. When an atom is formed, the protons and neutrons in the nucleus are bound together by the strong nuclear force. This binding results in the formation of a low energy state and is accompanied by a large release of energy. Since energy is equivalent to mass, the released energy corresponds to a loss in the mass of the nucleus relative to that of the separated protons and neutrons. Thus, protons and neutrons in the nucleus have masses that are less (about 0.7 percent less) than free protons and neutrons. The precise amount of mass loss is related to the binding energy of the nucleus and varies depending on the type of atom.

Meaning

One may therefore say that NA is approximately the number of nuclear neutrons or protons that have a mass of 1 gram. This is approximate because the precise mass of a nuclear proton or neutron depends on the composition of the nucleus. Tumblr markdown. For example, iron nucleons will have a significantly lower mass than those in hydrogen or plutonium.

Avogadro's number in life

Avogadro's number often yields practical reasonings in real life. For example, the fact that a known number of atoms are in a given amount of a substance is one reason for scientific criticism of homeopathy, in which medicinal substances are often diluted to the extent that a simple calculation involving Avogadro's number would imply that less than a single molecule remains.

See also

Further reading

  • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 28 (1999) 1713.

External links

  • Some Notes on Avogadro's Number, 6.022 x 1023 (http://gemini.tntech.edu/~tfurtsch/scihist/avogadro.htm)(historical notes)
  • 2002 CODATA value of Avogadro's number at NIST site (http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/cuu/Value?na search_for=avogadro)ca:Nombre d'Avogadro
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