3.1 Two Types of Bonding
- Iodine Valence Electrons Number
- Iodine Pentafluoride Valence Electrons
- Periodic Table Valence Electrons
- Iodine Pentafluoride Valence Electrons
We can identify the number of valence electrons in iodine by its group number on a periodic table. As it is in Group 7A, it means it has 7 valence electrons and therefore needs to gain 1 more. Because these ten electrons are not in the outermost shell, they are not valence electrons. Specifically, with iodine, the fifth shell begins with two electrons, then ten go into the fourth shell as already mentioned, before the next five occupy the fifth shell again, for a total of seven valence electrons (just like chlorine). Since Iodine (I) is below Period 3 on the periodic table it can hold more than 8 electrons. In the Lewis structure for ICl4- the Iodine atom has 12 valence electrons. Also note that you should put the ICl4- Lewis structure in brackets with as 1- on the outside to show that it is an ion with a negative one charge.
- Define the octet rule.
- Describe how ionic bonds are formed.
Atoms can join together by forming a chemical bondA very strong attraction between two atoms., which is a very strong attraction between two atoms. Chemical bonds are formed when electrons in different atoms interact with each other to make an arrangement that is more stable than when the atoms are apart.
What causes atoms to make a chemical bond with other atoms, rather than remaining as individual atoms? A clue comes by considering the noble gas elements, the rightmost column of the periodic table. These elements—helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon—do not form compounds very easily, which suggests that they are especially stable as lone atoms. What else do the noble gas elements have in common? Except for helium, they all have eight valence electrons. Chemists have concluded that atoms are especially stable if they have eight electrons in their outermost shell. This useful rule of thumb is called the octet ruleThe idea that atoms tend to have eight electrons in their valence shell., and it is a key to understanding why compounds form.
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Of the noble gases, only krypton, xenon, and radon have been found to make compounds.
There are two ways for an atom that does not have an octet of valence electrons to obtain an octet in its outer shell. One way is the transfer of electrons between two atoms until all atoms have octets. Because some atoms will lose electrons and some atoms will gain electrons, there is no overall change in the number of electrons, but individual atoms acquire a nonzero electric charge. Those that lose electrons become positively charged, and those that gain electrons become negatively charged. Charged atoms are called ionsA charged atom.. Because opposite charges attract (while like charges repel), these oppositely charged ions attract each other, forming ionic bondsAn attraction between oppositely charged ions.. The resulting compounds are called ionic compoundsA compound formed with an ionic bond. and are the primary subject of this chapter.
The second way for an atom to obtain an octet of electrons is by sharing electrons with another atom. These shared electrons simultaneously occupy the outermost shell of more than one atom. The bond made by electron sharing is called a covalent bond. Covalent bonding and covalent compounds will be discussed in Chapter 4 'Covalent Bonding and Simple Molecular Compounds'.
Despite our focus on the octet rule, we must remember that for small atoms, such as hydrogen, helium, and lithium, the first shell is, or becomes, the outermost shell and hold only two electrons. Therefore, these atoms satisfy a “duet rule” rather than the octet rule.
Iodine Valence Electrons Number
A sodium atom has one valence electron. Do you think it is more likely for a sodium atom to lose one electron or gain seven electrons to obtain an octet?
Although either event is possible, a sodium atom is more likely to lose its single valence electron. When that happens, it becomes an ion with a net positive charge. This can be illustrated as follows:
|Sodium atom||Sodium ion|
|11 protons||11+||11 protons||11+|
|11 electrons||11−||10 electrons||10−|
|0 overall charge||+1 overall charge|
A fluorine atom has seven valence electrons. Do you think it is more likely for a fluorine atom to lose seven electrons or gain one electron to obtain an octet?
Concept Review Exercises
Iodine Pentafluoride Valence Electrons
How are ionic bonds formed?
The octet rule is the concept that atoms tend to have eight electrons in their valence electron shell.
Ionic bonds are formed by the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Periodic Table Valence Electrons
- Atoms have a tendency to have eight electrons in their valence shell.
- The attraction of oppositely charged ions is what makes ionic bonds.
Why is an ionic compound unlikely to consist of two positively charged ions?
Why is an ionic compound unlikely to consist of two negatively charged ions?
A calcium atom has two valence electrons. Do you think it will lose two electrons or gain six electrons to obtain an octet in its outermost electron shell?
An aluminum atom has three valence electrons. Do you think it will lose three electrons or gain five electrons to obtain an octet in its outermost electron shell?
A selenium atom has six valence electrons. Do you think it will lose six electrons or gain two electrons to obtain an octet in its outermost electron shell?
An iodine atom has seven valence electrons. Do you think it will lose seven electrons or gain one electron to obtain an octet in its outermost electron shell?
Positive charges repel each other, so an ionic compound is not likely between two positively charged ions.
It is more likely to lose two electrons.
It is more likely to gain two electrons.
I’m now going to demonstrate how to bond Iodine Pentafluoride and what is its molecular geometry…
As shown in the image above we begin this process by writing the formula of the molecule. In this case our formula is IF5. After we write the formula down we use a periodic table or our previous knowledge on the amount of valence electrons for the elements we use in order to set up the Lewis dot diagram. For this problem I has 7 valence electrons and each F has 7 valence electrons. We already know that a bond between molecules is created by 2 electrons. Therefore, we can easily create 5 bonds, all the bonds surround the I, as I is our central atom. However, since Iodine has 1 additional pair of unbonded electrons, the bonds formed with Fluorine are placed at angles of 90 and 120 degrees because of the repelling forces between them. Once we have formed the bonds we check for the octet rule or otherwise known as the rule of 8. As we add up the number of electrons in bonds and alone we can conclude that this molecule does not satisfy the octet rule. If you want you may check the number of bonds that you are able to make with the application of the number of bonds chart. The chart is divided into 3 columns and 3 rows. In the first column we write the elements we are using. In the second column we write the number of electrons that are needed for the element to be “happy” or complete for each element. In the third column we write the number of electrons that we do have for each element. We add up all of the numbers from each column corresponding to their designated column. In the bottom or last row we conclude ny subtracting the second number from the first one and then divide that by 2 and we have the number of bonds. In this case the use of the chart is helpless as this molecule is an extended octet molecule. The next step is to set up the Lewis Structure of the molecule. According to our structure we can say that the shape of our molecule is square pyramidal which derives from octahedral. This molecule has a square pyramidal shape because of the repelling forces set by the unbonded pairs of electrons of Fluorine and the additional unbonded pair of electrons from Iodine.
Iodine Pentafluoride Valence Electrons
A 3D image of the shape is given below.