Lithium salts such as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), lithium citrate, and lithium orotate are mood stabilizers. They are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, since unlike most other mood altering drugs, they counteract both mania and depression. Lithium can also be used to augment other antidepressant drugs. It is also sometimes prescribed as a preventive treatment for migraine disease. Lithium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Li and atomic number 3. In the periodic table, it is located in group 1, among the alkali metals. Lithium in its pure form is a soft, silver white metal, that tarnishes and oxidizes very rapidly in air and water. Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lithium. Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lithium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration. Atomic Structure of Lithium. Lithium atomic radius is 167 pm, while it's covalent radius is 134 pm.
The Element Lithium
[Click for Isotope Data]
Atomic Number: 3
Atomic Weight: 6.941
Melting Point: 453.65 K (180.50°C or 356.90°F)
Boiling Point: 1615 K (1342°C or 2448°F)
Density: 0.534 grams per cubic centimeter
Phase at Room Temperature: Solid
Element Classification: Metal
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Lithium Atomic No
Period Number: 2
Group Number: 1
Group Name: Alkali Metal
What's in a name? From the Greek word for stone, lithos.
Say what? Lithium is pronounced as LITH-ee-em.
History and Uses:
Lithium was discovered in the mineral petalite (LiAl(Si2O5)2) by Johann August Arfvedson in 1817. It was first isolated by William Thomas Brande and Sir Humphrey Davy through the electrolysis of lithium oxide (Li2O). Today, larger amounts of the metal are obtained through the electrolysis of lithium chloride (LiCl). Lithium is not found free in nature and makes up only 0.0007% of the earth's crust.
Many uses have been found for lithium and its compounds. Lithium has the highest specific heat of any solid element and is used in heat transfer applications. It is used to make special glasses and ceramics, including the Mount Palomar telescope's 200 inch mirror. Lithium is the lightest known metal and can be alloyed with aluminium, copper, manganese, and cadmium to make strong, lightweight metals for aircraft. Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is used to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere of spacecraft. Lithium stearate (LiC18H35O2) is used as a general purpose and high temperature lubricant. Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is used as a drug to treat manic depression disorder.
Lithium reacts with water, but not as violently as sodium.
Estimated Crustal Abundance: 2.0×101 milligrams per kilogram
Estimated Oceanic Abundance: 1.8×10-1 milligrams per liter
Number of Stable Isotopes: 2 (View all isotope data)
Ionization Energy: 5.392 eV
Oxidation States: +1
Electron Shell Configuration:
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Lithium Atom Structure
A lithium atom is an atom of the chemical element lithium. Lithium is composed of three electrons bound by the electromagnetic force to a nucleus containing three protons along with either three or four neutrons, depending on the isotope, held together by the strong force. Similarly to the case of the helium atom, a closed-form solution to the Schrödinger equation for the lithium atom has not been found. However, various approximations, such as the Hartree–Fock method, can be used to estimate the ground state energy and wavefunction of the atom. The quantum defect is a value that describes the deviation from hydrogenic energy levels.
Lithium Atomic Number
- W. Zheng et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 153 (2004) 685–695 'Numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the ground lithium by the finite element method'