Isotope abundances of nitrogen. In the above, the most intense ion is set to 100% since this corresponds best to the output from a mass spectrometer. This is not to be confused with the relative percentage isotope abundances which totals 100% for all the naturally occurring isotopes.
Numbered weight. Nitrogen has an even atomic weight (14), so any number of nitrogen atoms will add up to an even molecular weight. Nitrogen, however, has an odd valence (it forms three bonds), and as a result there will be an odd. Nitrogen rule: When m/z for M has an even mass (even number of amu), the corresponding molecular formula has an even number of nitrogen atoms (0, 2, 4, etc.). When m/z for M has an odd mass (odd number of amu), the corresponding molecular formula has an odd number of nitrogen atoms (1, 3, 5, etc.). The rule applies when the molecule in question has only hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen.
If we got a straight line all the way, then this would tell us that the stable isotopes have the same number of neutrons as protons. However, this is not the case. The line curves upwards. Stable isotopes of the heavier elements (top right of the graph) have more neutrons than protons. For example, Gold-197 is stable. It contains 79 protons and 118 neutrons.
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Nitrogen Gas Formula
The neutrons in a nucleus can be thought of as acting as a kind of glue to hold the nucleus together. The positively charged protons are in a very confined space but would rather not be, due to the fact that they repel each other.
Mass Of Nitrogen
However, protons and neutrons are all attracted to each other as a result of another force - the strong nuclear force (see below). The neutrons don't contribute any repulsive effects because they are neutral. So having more neutrons around can help to hold the nucleus together. Notice that no amount of neutrons can hold a nucleus together once it has more that 82 protons – the line stops at Z = 82! All of the elements with an atomic number greater than 82 have only unstable isotopes.