Python Markdown Syntax

  
  1. Markdown Syntax In Python
  2. Python Markdown Syntax Example
  3. Python Markdown Syntax Pdf
  4. Python Markdown Syntax Interview

Markdown is a convenient HTML-focused shorthand syntax for formatting content such as documentation and blog articles, but it lacks basic features for image formatting, such as alignment and sizing. Using Markdown ```Python str = 'This is block level code' print(str) ``` Using Markup Tags Python str = 'This is a block level code' print(str) Using Markdown, you can get the syntax highlighting of code if programming language name is mentioned after the '```' three ticks and the example is given below. Pydocmd can generate plain Markdown files from Python modules using the pydocmd simple command. Specify one or more module names on the command-line. Supports the + syntax to include members of the module (or to include members of the members, etc.) pydocmd simple mypackage+ mypackage.mymodule+ docs.md.

Markdown is a type of markup language often used to document Python projects. Learn more about Markdown on Full Stack Python.

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Azure DevOps Services Azure DevOps Server 2020 Azure DevOps Server 2019 TFS 2018 - TFS 2015

Important

To view the content available for your platform, make sure that you select the correct version of this article from the version selector which is located above the table of contents. Feature support differs depending on whether you are working from Azure DevOps Services or an on-premises version of Azure DevOps Server, renamed from Team Foundation Server (TFS).
To learn which on-premises version you are using, see What platform/version am I using?

Here you can find some basic Markdown syntax guidance and specific guidance for using Markdown in Azure DevOps features. You can use both common Markdown conventions and GitHub-flavored extensions.

Having the right guidance at the right time is critical to success. Use Markdown to add rich formatting, tables, and images to your project pages, README files, dashboards, and pull request comments.

For additional syntax that's supported for Wiki pages, see Wiki Markdown guidance.

You can provide guidance in the following areas using Markdown:

Note

Rich Markdown rendering in code repositories is supported for TFS 2018.2 and later versions. You can create rich README.md files in the code repositories. The Markdown rendering of the MD files in code repositories supports HTML tags, block quotes, emojis, image resizing, and mathematical formulas. There is parity in Markdown rendering in Wiki and MD files in code.

Note

With TFS 2017.1, welcome pages, the Markdown widget on team dashboards, and the Definition of Done on Kanban boards no longer supports file links in their Markdown. As a workaround, you can include your file link as text in the Markdown.

Important

Not all Markdown syntax is supported across all features. Each section in this article identifies the features the syntax is supported with the Supported in line.

Headers

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files Wikis

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget README files

Structure your comments using headers. Headers segment longer comments, making them easier to read.

Start a line with a hash character # to set a heading. Organize your remarks with subheadings by starting a line with additional hash characters, for example ####. Up to six levels of headings are supported.

Example:

Result:

Paragraphs and line breaks

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files Wikis

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget README files

Make your text easier to read by breaking it up with paragraphs or line breaks.

In pull request comments, select Enter to insert a line break, and begin text on a new line.

In a Markdown file or widget, enter two spaces before the line break to begin a new paragraph, or enter two consecutive line breaks to begin a new paragraph.

In pull request comments, select Enter to insert a line break, and begin text on a new line. In a Markdown file or widget, enter two spaces before the line break to begin a new paragraph, or enter two consecutive line breaks to begin a new paragraph.

In a Markdown file or widget, enter two spaces before the line break to begin a new paragraph, or enter two line breaks consecutively to begin a new paragraph.

Example - pull request comment:

Result:Add lines between your text with the Enter key.This spaces your text better and makes it easier to read.

Example - Markdown file or widget:

Result:
Add two spaces before the end of the line.

Space is added in between paragraphs.

Python markdown syntax tutorial

Blockquotes

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files Wikis

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget README files

Quote previous comments or text to set the context for your comment or text.

Quote single lines of text with > before the text. Use many > characters to nest quoted text.Quote blocks of lines of text by using the same level of > across many lines.

Example:

Result:

Horizontal rules

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files Wikis

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget README files

To add a horizontal rule, add a line that's a series of dashes ---. The line above the line containing the --- must be blank.

Example:

Result:

above

below

Emphasis (bold, italics, strikethrough)

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files Wikis

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget README files

You can emphasize text by applying bold, italics, or strikethrough to characters:

  • To apply italics: surround the text with an asterisk * or underscore _
  • To apply bold: surround the text with double asterisks **.
  • To apply strikethrough: surround the text with double tilde characters ~~.

Combine these elements to apply emphasis to text.

Note

There is no Markdown syntax that supports underlining text. Within a wiki page, you can use the HTML <u> tag to generate underlined text. For example, <u>underlined text</u> yields underlined text.

Note

There is no Markdown syntax that supports underlining text. Within a wiki page in TFS 2018.2 and later versions, you can use the HTML <u> tag to generate underlined text. For example, <u>underlined text</u> yields underlined text.

Note

There is no Markdown syntax that supports underlining text.

Example:


Result:

Use emphasis in comments to express strong opinions and point out corrections
Bold, italicized textBold, strike-through text

Supported in: Pull Requests README files Wikis

Highlight suggested code segments using code highlight blocks.To indicate a span of code, wrap it with three backtick quotes (```) on a new line at both the start and end of the block. To indicate code inline, wrap it with one backtick quote (`).

Note

Code highlighting entered within the Markdown widget renders code as plain preformatted text.

Example:


Result:


Example:


Result:

To install the Microsoft Cross Platform Build & Release Agent, run the following command: $ sudo npm install vsoagent-installer -g.


Within a Markdown file, text with four spaces at the beginning of the line automatically converts to a code block.

Set a language identifier for the code block to enable syntax highlighting for any of the supported languages in highlightjs, version v9.10.0.


Additional examples:


Tables

Supported in: Markdown widget Pull Requests README files Wikis

Supported in: Markdown widget Pull Requests README files

Organize structured data with tables. Tables are especially useful for describing function parameters, object methods, and other data that havea clear name to description mapping. You can format tables in pull requests, wiki, and Markdown files such as README files and Markdown widgets.

  • Place each table row on its own line
  • Separate table cells using the pipe character
  • The first two lines of a table set the column headers and the alignment of elements in the table
  • Use colons (:) when dividing the header and body of tables to specify column alignment (left, center, right)
  • To start a new line, use the HTML break tag (<br/>) (Works within a Wiki but not elsewhere)
  • Make sure to end each row with a CR or LF.
  • A blank space is required before and after work item or pull request (PR) mentions inside a table cell.

Example:

Result:

Heading 1Heading 2Heading 3
Cell A1Cell A2Cell A3
Cell B1Cell B2Cell B3
second line of text

Lists

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files Wikis

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget README files

Organize related items with lists. You can add ordered lists with numbers, or unordered lists with just bullets.

Ordered lists start with a number followed by a period for each list item. Unordered lists start with a -. Begin each list item on a new line. In a Markdown file or widget, enter two spaces before the line break to begin a new paragraph, or enter two line breaks consecutively to begin a new paragraph.

Ordered or numbered lists

Example:

Result:

  1. First item.
  2. Second item.
  3. Third item.

Bullet lists

Example:

Result:

  • Item 1
  • Item 2
  • Item 3

Nested lists

Example:

Result:

  1. First item.
    • Item 1
    • Item 2
    • Item 3
  2. Second item.
    • Nested item 1
    • Nested item 2
    • Nested item 3

Links

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files Wikis

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget README files

In pull request comments and wikis, HTTP and HTTPS URLs are automatically formatted as links. You can link to work items by entering the # key and a work item ID, and then choosing the work item from the list.

Avoid auto suggestions for work items by prefixing # with a backslash (). This action can be useful if you want to use # for color hex codes.

In Markdown files and widgets, you can set text hyperlinks for your URL using the standard Markdown link syntax:

When linking to another Markdown page in the same Git or TFVC repository, the link target can be a relative path or an absolute path in the repository.

Supported links for Welcome pages:

  • Relative path: [text to display](/target.md)
  • Absolute path in Git: [text to display](/folder/target.md)
  • Absolute path in TFVC: [text to display]($/project/folder/target.md)
  • URL: [text to display](http://address.com)

Supported links for Markdown widget:

  • URL: [text to display](http://address.com)

Supported links for Wiki:

  • Absolute path of Wiki pages: [text to display](/parent-page/child-page)
  • URL: [text to display](http://address.com)

Note

Links to documents on file shares using file:// aren't supported on 2017.1 and later versions. This restriction has been implemented for security purposes. Apache https rewrite.

For information on how to specify relative links from a Welcome page or Markdown widget, see Source control relative links.

Example:

Result:

Source control relative links

Links to source control files are interpreted differently depending on whether you specify them in a Welcome page or a Markdown widget. The system interprets relative links as follows:

  • Welcome page: relative to the root of the source control repository in which the welcome page exists
  • Markdown widget: relative to the team project collection URL base

For example:

Welcome pageMarkdown widget equivalent
/BuildTemplates/AzureContinuousDeploy.11.xaml/DefaultCollection/Fabrikam Fiber/_versionControl#path=$/Tfvc Welcome/BuildTemplates/AzureContinuousDeploy.11.xaml
./page-2.md/DefaultCollection/Fabrikam Fiber/_versionControl#path=$/Tfvc Welcome/page-2.md

Anchor links

Within Markdown files, anchor IDs are assigned to all headings when rendered as HTML. The ID is the heading text, with the spaces replaced by dashes (-) and all lower case. In general, the following conventions apply:

  • Punctuation marks and leading white spaces within a file name are ignored
  • Upper case letters are converted to lower
  • Spaces between letters are converted to dashes (-).

Example:


Result:

The syntax for an anchor link to a section..


The ID is all lower case, and the link is case-sensitive, so be sure to use lower case, even though the heading itself uses upper case.

You can also reference headings within another Markdown file:


In wiki, you can also reference heading in another page:

Images

Supported in: Markdown widget Pull Requests README files Wikis

Supported in: Markdown widget Pull Requests README files

To highlight issues or make things more interesting, you can add images and animated GIFs to the following aspects in your pull requests:

  • Comments
  • Markdown files
  • Wiki pages

Use the following syntax to add an image:

The text in the brackets describes the image being linked and the URL points to the image location.

Example:


Result:

The path to the image file can be a relative path or the absolute path in Git or TFVC, just like the path to another Markdown file in a link.

  • Relative path: ![Image alt text](./image.png)

  • Absolute path in Git: ![Image alt text](/media/markdown-guidance/image.png)

  • Absolute path in TFVC: ![Image alt text]($/project/folder/media/markdown-guidance/image.png)

  • Resize image: IMAGE_URL =WIDTHxHEIGHT

    Note

    Be sure to include a space before the equal sign.

    • Example: ![Image alt text]($/project/folder/media/markdown-guidance/image.png =500x250)
    • It's also possible to specify only the WIDTH by leaving out the HEIGHT value: IMAGE_URL =WIDTHx

Checklist or task list

Supported in: Pull Requests Wikis

Lightweight task lists are great ways to track progress on a list of todos as a pull request creator or reviewer in the PR description or in a wiki page. Select the Markdown toolbar to get started or apply the format to selected text.

You can Use [ ] or [x] to support checklists. Precede the checklist with either -<space> or 1.<space> (any numeral).

Example - Apply the task list Markdown to a highlighted list

After you've added a task list, you can check the boxes to mark items as completed. These actions are expressed and stored within the comment as [ ] and [x] in Markdown.

Example - Format a list as a task list


Result:

Note

A checklist within a table cell isn't supported.

Supported in: Pull Requests Wikis

In pull request comments and wiki pages, you can use emojis to add character and react to comments in the request. Enter what you're feeling surrounded by : characters to get a matching emoji in your text. The full set of emojis are supported.

Supported in: Pull Requests

In pull request comments, you can use emojis to add characters and react to comments in the request. Enter what you're feeling surrounded by : characters to get a matching emoji in your text. The full set of emojis are supported.

Example:


Result:

To escape emojis, enclose them using the ` character.

Example:

Result:

:smile::):angry:

Ignore or escape Markdown syntax to enter specific or literal characters

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files Wikis

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget Pull Requests README files

Supported in: Definition of Done Markdown widget README files

SyntaxExample/notes

To insert one of the following characters, prefix with a (backslash).

, backslash

`, backtick

_, underscore

{}, curly braces

[], square brackets

(), parentheses

#, hash mark

+, plus sign

-, minus sign (hyphen)

., period

!, exclamation mark

*, asterisk

Some examples on inserting special characters:

Enter to get

Enter _ to get _

Enter # to get #

Enter ( to get (

Enter . to get .

Enter ! to get !

Enter * to get *

Supported in: Pull Requests README files Wikis

In pull request comments and wiki pages, you can attach files to illustrate your point or to give more detailed reasoning behind your suggestions. To attach a file, drag and drop it into the comment field or wiki page edit experience. You can also select the paperclip in the upper right of the comment box or the format pane in wiki page.

In pull request comments, you can attach files to illustrate your point or to give more detailed reasoning behind your suggestions. To attach a file, drag and drop it into the comment field. You can also select the paperclip in the upper right of the comment box.

Note

Attachments in pull requests is available with TFS 2017.1 and later versions.

If you have an image in your clipboard, you can paste it from the clipboard into the comment box or wiki page and it renders directly into your comment or wiki page.

Attaching non-image files creates a link to the file in your comment. Update the description text between the brackets to change the text displayed in the link.Attached image files render directly into your comment or wiki pages. After you save or update a comment or wiki page with an attachment, you can see the attached image and can select links to download attached files.

Attachments support the following file formats.

TypeFile formats
CodeCS (.cs), Extensible Markup Language (.xml), JavaScript Object Notation (.json), Hypertext Markup Language(.html, .htm), Layer (.lyr), Windows PowerShell script (.ps1), Roshal Archive (.rar), Remote Desktop Connection (.rdp), Structured Query Language (.sql) - Note: Code attachments aren't permitted in PR comments
Compressed filesZIP (.zip) and GZIP (.gz)
DocumentsMarkdown (.md), Microsoft Office Message (.msg), Microsoft Project (.mpp), Word (.doc and .docx), Excel (.xls, .xlsx and .csv), and Powerpoint (.ppt and .pptx), text files (.txt), and PDFs (.pdf)
ImagesPNG (.png), GIF (.gif), JPEG (both .jpeg and .jpg), Icons (.ico)
VisioVSD (.vsd and .vsdx)
VideoMOV (.mov), MP4 (.mp4)

Note

Not all file formats are supported within pull requests, such as Microsoft Office Message (.msg) files.

Mathematical notation and characters

Supported in: Pull Requests Wikis

Both inline and block KaTeX notation is supported in wiki pages and pull requests. The following supported elements are included:

  • Symbols
  • Greek letters
  • Mathematical operators
  • Powers and indices
  • Fractions and binomials
  • Other KaTeX supported elements

To include mathematical notation, surround the mathematical notation with a $ sign, for inline, and $$ for block, as shown in the following examples:

Note

This feature is supported within Wiki pages and pull requests for TFS 2018.2 or later versions.

Example: Greek characters

Result:

Example: Algebraic notation

Result:

Example: Sums and Integrals

Result:

Related articles

Learning Objectives

  • Explain what the Markdown format is.
  • Describe the role of Markdown for documentation of earth data science workflows.
  • Use Markdown syntax in Jupyter Notebook to:
    • Create headers and lists
    • Bold and italicize bold text
    • Render images and create hyperlinks to web pages

What is Markdown?

Markdown is a human readable syntax (also referred to as a markup language) for formatting text documents. Markdown can be used to produce nicely formatted documents including PDFs and web pages.

When you format text using Markdown in a document, it is similar to using the format tools (e.g. bold, heading 1, heading 2) in a word processing tool like Microsoft Word or Google Docs. However, instead of using buttons to apply formatting, you use syntax such as **this syntax bolds text in markdown** or # Here is a heading.

Markdown syntax allows you to format text in many ways, such as making headings, bolding and italicizing words, creating bulleted lists, adding links, formatting mathematical symbols and making tables. These options allow you to format text in visually appealing and organized ways to present your ideas.

You can use Markdown to format text in many different tools including GitHub.com, R using RMarkdown, and Jupyter Notebook, which you will learn more about this page.

Data Tip: Learn more about how you can use Markdown to format text and document workflows in a variety of tools.

Markdown in Jupyter Notebook

A great benefit of Jupyter Notebook is that it allows you to combine both code (e.g. Python) and Markdown in one document, so that you can easily document your workflows.

A Jupyter Notebook file uses cells to organize content, and it can contain both cells that render text written using the Markdown syntax as well as cells that contain and run Python code.

Thus, you can use a combination of Markdown and Python code cells to organize and document your Jupyter Notebook for others to easily read and follow your workflow.

Data Tip: Learn more about Markdown for Jupyter Notebook.

If you render your Jupyter Notebook file to HTML or PDF, this Markdown will appear as formatted text in the output document.

Data Tip: In fact, this web page that you are reading right now is generated from a Markdown document! On this page, you will learn the basic syntax of Markdown.

Benefits of Markdown for Earth Data Science

Being able to include both Markdown and code (e.g. Python) cells in a Jupyter Notebook file supports reproducible science by allowing you to:

  • Document your workflow: You can add text to the document that describes the steps of your processing workflow (e.g. how data is being processed and what results are produced).
  • Describe your data: You can describe the data that you are using (e.g. source, pre-processing, metadata).
  • Interpret code outputs: You can add some text that interprets or discusses the outputs.

all in one document!

When used effectively, Markdown documentation can help anyone who opens your Jupyter Notebook to follow, understand and even reproduce your workflow.

Format Text in Jupyter Notebook with Markdown

Markdown Cells in Jupyter Notebook

In the previous chapter on Jupyter Notebook, you learned how to add new Markdown cells to your Jupyter Notebook files using Menu tools and Keyboard Shortcuts to create new cells.

FunctionKeyboard ShortcutMenu Tools
Create new cellEsc + a (above), Esc + b (below)Insert→ Insert Cell Above OR Insert → Insert Cell Below
Copy CellcCopy Key
Paste CellvPaste Key

You also learned how to change the default type of the cell by clicking in the cell and selecting a new cell type (e.g. Markdown) in the cell type menu in the toolbar. Furthermore, you learned that in a Jupyter Notebook file, you can double-click in any Markdown cell to see the syntax, and then run the cell again to see the Markdown formatting.

Note: if you type text in a Markdown cell with no additional syntax, the text will appear as regular paragraph text. You can add additional syntax to that text to format it in different ways.

On this page, you will learn basic Markdown syntax that you can use to format text in Jupyter Notebook files.

Section Headers

You can create a heading using the pound (#) sign. For the headers to render properly, there must be a space between the # and the header text.

Heading one is denoted using one # sign, heading two is denoted using two ## signs, etc, as follows:

Here is a sample of the rendered Markdown:

Heading Three

Markdown Syntax In Python

Heading Four

Note: the titles on this page are actually formatted using Markdown (e.g. the words Section Headers above are formatted as a heading two).

Lists

You can also use Markdown to create lists using the following syntax:

It will render as follows:

  • This is a bullet list
  • This is a bullet list
  • This is a bullet list
  1. And you can also create ordered lists
  2. by using numbers
  3. and listing new items in the lists
  4. on their own lines

Notice that you have space between the * or 1. and the text. The space triggers the action to create the list using Markdown.

Bold and Italicize

You can also use ** to bold or * to italicize words. To bold and italicize words, the symbols have to be touching the word and have to be repeated before and after the word using the following syntax:

It will render as follows:

These are italicized words, not a bullet listThese are bold words, not a bullet list

  • This is a bullet item with bold words
  • This is a bullet item with italicized words

Highlight Code

If you want to highlight a function or some code within a plain text paragraph, you can use one backtick on each side of the text like this:

which renders like this:

Here is some code!

The symbol used is the backtick, or grave; not an apostrophe (on most US keyboards, it is on the same key as the tilde (~)).

Horizontal Lines (Rules)

You can also create a horizontal line or rule to highlight a block of Markdown syntax (similar to the highlighting a block of code using the backticks):

which renders like this:

Here is some important text!

Hyperlinks

You can also use HTML in Markdown cells to create hyperlinks to websites using the following syntax:

<a href='url' target='_blank'>hyperlinked words</a>

You can identify the words that will be hyperlinked (i.e. prompt a web page to open when clicked) by replacing hyperlinked words in the example above.

For example, the following syntax:

Our program website can be found at <a href='http://earthdatascience.org' target='_blank'>this link</a>.

will render as follows with this link as the hyperlinked words:

Our program website can be found at this link.

Render Images

You can also use Markdown to link to images on the web using the following syntax:

![alt text here](url-to-image-here)

The alt text is the alternative text that appears if an image fails to load on webpage; it is also used by screen-reading tools to identify the image to users of the screen-reading tools.

For example, the following syntax:

![Markdown Logo is here.](https://www.fullstackpython.com/img/logos/markdown.png)

will render as follows with an alt text of Markdown Logo is here.:

Local Images Using Relative Computer Paths

You can also add images to a Markdown cell using relative paths to files in your directory structure using:

![alt text here](path-to-image-here)

Python Markdown Syntax Example

For relative paths (images stored on your computer) to work in Jupyter Notebook, you need to place the image in a location on your computer that is RELATIVE to your .ipynb file. This is where good file management becomes extremely important.

For a simple example of using relative paths, imagine that you have a subdirectory named images in your earth-analytics directory (i.e. earth-analytics/images/).

If your Jupyter Notebook file (.ipynb) is located in root of this directory (i.e. earth-analytics/notebook.ipynb), and all images that you want to include in your report are located in the images subdirectory (i.e. earth-analytics/images/), then the path that you would use for each image is:

Python Markdown Syntax Pdf

images/image-name.png

If all of your images are in the images subdirectory, then you will be able to easily find them. This also follows good file management practices because all of the images that you use in your report are contained within your project directory.

Data tip: There are many free Markdown editors out there! The atom.io editor is a powerful text editor package by GitHub, that also has a Markdown renderer that allows you to preview the rendered Markdown as you write.

Additional Resources

Practice Your Markdown Skills

Python Markdown Syntax Interview

  1. Open or create a new Jupyter Notebook file.

  2. Add a new Markdown cell and include:
    • A title for the notebook (e.g. Intro to Earth Analytics - Chapter Four)
    • A bullet list with:
      • A bold word for Author: and then add text for your name.
      • A bold word for Date: and then add text for today’s date.
  3. Add another Markdown cell and include:
    • A list of your top three favorite foods (e.g. blueberries, chocolate bars, avocados).
      • Italicize the first item in your list.
      • Add a hyperlink (i.e. webpages) for the second item in your list (include the name of the food in the title of the hyperlink).
      • Add an image for the last item in your list (include the name in the alt text of the image).