Scandium was discovered by Lars Fredik Nilson in 1879. It is a transition element and is widely used as aluminum-scandium alloy for minor aerospace industry.
History and Discovery
The existence of scandium was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev when he organized the elements in the periodic table. He called it ekaboron (boron like) and suggested some physical and chemical properties in 1869. Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team, in 1879 found this element in the minerals of euxenite and gadolinite. He prepared scandium oxide of high purity. The word scandium has been derived from Latin Scandia meaning Scandinavia . In 1937, metallic scandium was prepared for the first time by Fischer and his colleagues through electrolysis of molten scandium, lithium and potassium chloride.
In the electron configuration for scandium (atomic number 21), what is the notation for the three highest-energy electrons? Scandium iodide (ScI3) is used in lamps that produce light having a color closely matching natural sunlight. Atomic Number 21 Learn more about the atomic number. Description Fairly soft, silvery-white metal. Eighth most abundant 'rare earth' found in the earth's crust (5.0 ppm). Atomic Mass 44,95591 Learn more about the atomic mass.
|Periodic Table Classification||Group 3|
|State at 20C||Solid|
|Electron Configuration||[Ar] 3d1 4s2|
|Electron Shell||2, 8, 9, 2|
|Density||2.99 g.cm-3 at 20°C|
|Atomic Mass||44.95 g.mol -1|
|Electronegativity according to Pauling||1.36|
Scandium is the 50th most common element in the earth crust and 35th most abundant element in the Sun. Scandium is found in ores of tin, uranium and tungsten. Thortveitite (Scandium silicate) contain 45% scandium in the form of scandium oxide but it is very rare in nature. Scandium is mostly produced as a by-product during the extraction of uranium through mineral davidite which contain around 0.02% scandium oxide. Citrix workspace google chrome download. It is mainly mined in China, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Norway and Russia.
Scandium is a transition metal. It is silver-white soft metal. When exposed to air it develops a slightly yellowish or pinkish tint. It has a high melting point, but it is as light as aluminum. That means it has relatively low density, about 2.98g/cm3. Its melting point is 1541oC and boiling point is 2836oC. Scandium chemical symbol is Sc. Its atomic number is 21 and atomic weight is 44.95g/mol.
Scandium easily reacts with dilute acids. It is easily burnt and get tarnished in the presence of air. It reacts with water and form hydrogen gas. Pure form of scandium is produced by heating scandium fluoride with calcium metal. Scandium properties are similar with yttrium so it is often classified as a lanthanide like element. Its compound mostly exists in +3 oxidation state. Its oxides and hydroxide are amphoteric (ion that can react with both acid and base). Scandium halides are soluble in water except scandium fluoride which form impermeable passive layer. Organoscandium compounds have lower oxidation states like: 0, +1, +2.
Significance and Uses
- It is used in houses in equipment like color television, fluorescent lamps, energy saving lamps and glasses.
- It is also used to polish glass.
- Aluminum-Scandium alloys are used for aerospace industry.
- Scandium is used in sports equipment like bikes, baseball and bats etc.
- It is also helpful in reducing solidification cracking during welding of high strength aluminum alloys.
- Scandium oxide are used to make high intensity stadium light.
- Scandium iodide is used in mercury vapor lamps.
- Scandium-45 isotope is used in oil refineries.
- Scandium sulfate in diluted form used to improve the germination of seeds like corn, peas and wheat.
Scandium is non-toxic in nature. And is has no known biological role. Certain compounds of scandium, however are highly hazardous for individuals working in laboratory areas and industries. Long term exposure of scandium may cause lungs embolism and liver damage.
Isotopes of Scandium
Naturally scandium is found in 45Sc isotope and it is stable. Thirteen radioactive isotopes have been identified, out of which the most stable one is 46Sc has half-life of 83.8 days, 47Sc has 3.35 days, 44Sc has 4 hours and 48Sc has 43.7 hours .
. Nilson, Lars Fredrik (1879). “Sur l’ytterbine, terre nouvelle de M. Marignac”. Comptes Rendus(in French). 88: 642–647.
. Lide, David R. (2004). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 4–28
. Audi, Georges; Bersillon, O.; Blachot, J.; Wapstra, A. H. (2003). “The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties”. Nuclear Physics A. Atomic Mass Data Center. 729: 3–128.
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Molar mass of Sc = 44.955910 g/mol
Convert grams Scandium to moles or moles Scandium to grams
|Symbol||# of Atoms||Scandium||Sc||44.955910||1||100.000%|
Note that all formulas are case-sensitive.Did you mean to find the molecular weight of one of these similar formulas?
In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight (in atomic mass units) of each element in a chemical formula by the number of atoms of that element present in the formula, then adding all of these products together.
If the formula used in calculating molar mass is the molecular formula, the formula weight computed is the molecular weight. The percentage by weight of any atom or group of atoms in a compound can be computed by dividing the total weight of the atom (or group of atoms) in the formula by the formula weight and multiplying by 100.
The atomic weights used on this site come from NIST, the National Institute of Standards and Technology. We use the most common isotopes. This is how to calculate molar mass (average molecular weight), which is based on isotropically weighted averages. This is not the same as molecular mass, which is the mass of a single molecule of well-defined isotopes. For bulk stoichiometric calculations, we are usually determining molar mass, which may also be called standard atomic weight or average atomic mass.
Using the chemical formula of the compound and the periodic table of elements, we can add up the atomic weights and calculate molecular weight of the substance.
Formula weights are especially useful in determining the relative weights of reagents and products in a chemical reaction. These relative weights computed from the chemical equation are sometimes called equation weights.
Finding molar mass starts with units of grams per mole (g/mol). When calculating molecular weight of a chemical compound, it tells us how many grams are in one mole of that substance. The formula weight is simply the weight in atomic mass units of all the atoms in a given formula.
A common request on this site is to convert grams to moles. To complete this calculation, you have to know what substance you are trying to convert. The reason is that the molar mass of the substance affects the conversion. This site explains how to find molar mass.